Thursday, June 30, 2016

Israel Never Existed

“Take Egypt out and the whole structure of the Israelites’ tale would instantly fall apart.”

Dr. Ashraf Ezzat

Egypt knew no Pharaohs cover art-15-3-blurred bakground-1-resized
Did you know that Egypt is mentioned in the Holy Bible approximately 700 times(Egypt: 595 times, Egyptian(s): 120 times).
Obviously, Egypt must have played a vital role in the history of the Hebrews otherwise it wouldn’t have been such a recurring theme in the Jewish holy book.
Egypt was, and still is, the magnificent overture/prelude to the Israelites’ story. Take Egypt out and the whole structure of the Israelites’ tale would instantly come crumbling down.
We have long been told of the Israelites’ long enslavement and of their breath-taking and logic-defying Exodus from the land of the Nile, where in fact none of that ever took place on Egyptian soil. Ancient Egypt has been made the land of the Israelites’ stories by design or by deception if you like.
But on the other hand, do you know how many times Israel or the Israelites were mentioned in the ancient Egyptian records? … Well, and according to history and the ancient Egyptian meticulous records – get ready for the surprise– once or … maybe none at all.
Now and before I take you on a little journey back in time, around 3000 years ago, I want you to contemplate on this paradoxical ratio 1:700, and try to answer this simple question; what if there was someone who, you were told, talked of you hundreds and hundreds of times, citing places and stories he said had shared with you, only you don’t know who he is or what the hell he is talking about … what do you call that person? … A liar!  A deluded person!  … or maybe someone who is trying to steal your thunder.
If that is your answer, then we’re having a common ground for my following argument. If not, then, hop on my time machine and let’s visit the ancient Egyptian empire at its zenith.

Once mentioned but its (real) whereabouts is the question

King Merneptah Stele – 1208 BC
The only time Israel was mentioned in the ancient Egyptian texts, the most meticulous and coherent of the world’s ancient civilizations and which covered the chronicles of nearly 3000 years, was in King Merneptah Stele. The black granite slab engraved with a description of the victories of king Merneptah– son of the great Ramses II- in a military campaign against the Meshwesh Libyans and their Sea People allies, but its final two lines, line 26 & 27, refer to a prior military campaign in Canaan (mistaken by orthodox historians for Palestine) in the Near East.
The stele which dates to about 1208 BC was discovered by renowned British archaeologist Flinders Petrie at Thebes in 1896.
The Inscription contains a hymn and a list of the Pharaoh’s military victories.   A tribe, whom Merenptah had victoriously smitten””Or as Petrie quickly suggested that it read: “Israel!” is on the list of conquests.  The mention of Israel is very short; it simply says, “Israel is laid waste, its seed is no more.”
This was the first extra-biblical Egyptian source to mention the tribe of Israel and the last one for that matter.
Yes, maybe the tribe, not the kingdom, of Israel had been mentioned in King Merneptah Stele, but it was ascertained to be completely devastated and existed no more. One more thing the stele did not say much about the exact location of that ‘’ tribe (which according to our research/book is to be found in south ancient Arabia and North Yemen)
Interestingly enough, the Israelites were depicted (with distinctive hieroglyphs) in the Egyptian stele as Bedouins/nomads who were always on the move and who never settled in one place/city- contrary to the Israelite story of invasion and settlement they have been raving about during long centuries of silent Egyptian records. The ancient Egyptian writing, Hieroglyphs, has been deciphered in 1822 by Jean Francois Champollion
Israel in hieroglyphs ( in Merneptah Stele )
While the other defeated Egyptian enemies listed besides Israel in Merneptah stele such as Ashkelon, Gezer and Yanoam( cities to be inhabited later by pelset/palestinians )were given the determinative for a city-state—”a throw stick plus three mountains designating a foreign country”—the hieroglyphs that refer to Israel instead employ the determinative sign used for foreign peoples: a throw stick plus a man and a woman over three vertical plural lines. This sign is typically used by the Egyptians to signify nomadic tribes without a fixed city-state, thus implying that ysrỉꜣr “Israel” was the demonym for a seminomadic population who were always on the move at the time the stele was created.
And since some of the cities mentioned in the ancient stele were phonetically similar to ones already located in Palestine, scholars were quick to jump to the (wrong) conclusion that ancient ‘Israel’ must have also been located in ancient Palestine (a totally erroneous conclusion we have completely exposed its fallacy in our recent book)
Despite the scarcity of archeological finds that corroborate the veracity of the Hebrew bible’s narrative, modern archeologists don’t deny the Israelites existed; rather they believe their stories happened quite differently. In my book we take a step further and prove that the all Israelite stories took place in ancient Arabia and North Yemen (the homeland of Judaism) and not in Palestine as millions (of gullible laymen) over hundreds of years have been made to believe.
Since the outcome of relentless excavations of (so called) Canaan/Palestine by Israeli and western archeologists from the beginning of the  twentieth century only widened the gap between the historical truth as academics know it and the tales of the Hebrew bible, I thought maybe we could look for the missing part somewhere else. Since more consistent and reliable documentation is needed, we should therefore try and look for the truth in Egypt.

Egyptian hegemony over the Levant (alleged Canaan)

Relief depicting King Ramses II smiting his enemies
The Bible chronology ironically places the exodus at around 1200BC, in the same time period king Merneptah and his father Ramsses II ruled over Egypt, whose documented legacy is totally unfamiliar with this Hebrew tale of “Great Escape” from the Nile valley.
On the contrary, king Merneptah leaves behind no tales of bewitched snakes or parting sea but only his famous stele which bears witness to the devastation of the Hebrew tribe.
Egypt had a unique geographical location and landscape. The land of Egypt enjoyed many natural barriers; there were deserts to the east and west of the Nile River, and mountains to the south and the Mediterranean Sea to the north. This unique geography had (sort of) protected the ancient Egyptians and allowed them to develop the longest (almost uninterrupted 3000 years) enduring civilization in antiquity.
During the New kingdom (1550 – 1077 BC) Egypt controlled a great chunk of the Levant in order to secure trade routes and relations with eastern powers.
So the territory known today as Palestine/Israel, Jordan, Lebanon and South Syria was practically under Egyptian sovereignty with fortified military garrisons and castles all over the place. Hence the hilarious part of the exodus tale is exposed; for you don’t exit the US by fleeing New York and heading for Massachusetts. Sinai and the Levant was very much Egyptian territory at the (purported) time of the Exodus. By the way the land occupied by nowadays Palestine, Lebanon and Jordan has never been known/referred to in ancient history as ‘Canaan’ (as explained in my book)
The chieftains of the Levant’s tribal communities and leaders of the small cities had to pledge loyalty to the mighty king of Egypt.  In return they would be granted his majesty’s protection and support in times of hardships. (Have you ever heard of Egyptian presence in the Levant -mistaken for Canaan by orientalists- in the narrative of the Hebrew bible; I don’t think so)
An example to the Egyptian hegemony over the Levant / Canaan, particularly during the new kingdom (1570 – 1070 BC), is the valley of Meggido.
Megiddo is the biblical city of Armageddon that stands above the plain where, at the end of the world, the final/ mythological battle between the armies of the Lord and the kings of the earth will be fought out, as the Book of Revelations tells (Revelations 16:16).
According to the documented/orthodox history Meggido was the place that witnessed one of the greatest battles in the Egyptian empire. According to our investigation there was also another Meggido. It was one of those obscure tribal towns located along theancient Incense trade route that had cut across Western Arabian coast.
And to get a clearer picture of how the so called biblical cities depended entirely on Egyptian protection and support and how it was essential for their chieftains/leaders to show their unflinching loyalty to the Egyptian monarchy; Here is one of the famousAmarna letters, discovered in 1887, in which Biridiya, the chieftain of Meggido is practically groveling for the help of king Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten, 1350-1334 BC).
Notice that Biridiya is addressing the king of Egypt as “my lord, my god and sun” and not as “Pharaoh”- another Biblical myth the writer of this essay consistently refutes.
“To the king, my Lord and my God and Sun, thus speaks Biridiya, the loyal servant of the king:  At the feet of the king, my Lord and my God and Sun, seven times and seven times I prostrate myself.
May the king know that since the archers have gone back, Labayu [chieftain of  Shechem/ biblical town of Jacob and where Joseph is allegedly buried] carries out acts of hostility against me, and that we cannot shear the wool and that we cannot pass through the gate in the presence of Labayu, since he knows that you have not given (me) archers; and now he intends to take Meggido, but the king will protect his city so that Labayu does not seize her. In truth, the city is destroyed by death as a result of pestilence and disease. Grant me one hundred garrison troops to guard the city, lest Labayu take it. Certainly, Labayu has no another intentions. He tries to destroy Meggido.”
So the biblical city of Meggido was so small and feeble that 100 garrison troops were enough to secure and defend it against a takeover by another tribe. That was during a period of time supposedly referred to in the Israelite history as the Settlement in Canaan (Judges Period). Well, that contradiction is strongly suggesting that the ‘Hebrew Bible’ must have been talking about another ‘Canaan’

Geopolitics and landscape of ancient Canaan

Canaan on the map
Actually the Hebrew Bible sketched such a misleading landscape for the land of Canaan; it is depicted as an attraction site for different peoples that even the God of the Israelites, who obviously suffered from geographical illiteracy, eyed it as his Promised land.
Canaan’s miscellaneous landscape, framed by sea and desert, by Egypt and Anatolia, part bad lands, part green plains, never lent itself to the notion of nationhood. In the mountains it was hard enough to survive, let alone indulge in the luxury of court politics. And in the plains, the cities of central and southern Canaan were all on the ancient highways, on the roads to somewhere else, between Egypt and the Hittites and Mesopotamia. As we said earlier, and according to our investigation, Canaan in the Bible was to be found in ancient Arabia and near North Yemen.
Moreover, the Biblical description is obviously unfamiliar with the geopolitical reality in Palestine. Palestine was under Egyptian rule until the beginning of the first millennia BC. The Egyptians’ administrative centers were located in Gaza, Yaffo and Beit She’an.Egyptian presence has also been discovered in many locations on both sides of the Jordan River.
This striking Egyptian presence in the land is not mentioned in the Biblical account, and it is also clear that it was unknown to the Hebrew scribes at the time.
Moreover, the archaeological findings blatantly contradict the Biblical picture: the Canaanite cities were not ‘great,’ were not fortified and did not have sky-high walls – as in the notorious story of the walls of Jericho. The heroism of the conquerors, the few versus the many and the assistance of the God who fought for his people is but a theological reconstruction lacking any factual basis.
Though Merneptah stele was the only Egyptian reference to mention Israel, but it wasn’t the only reference on military campaigns in Palestine/Canaan. Other Egyptian kings from the new kingdom(1550 – 1069 BC) have left us valuable inscriptions (on stele and temple walls) that documented many of their battles in Canaan as did king Ramses II in his famous battle with the Hittites in Kadesh (1274 BC)  Though the documents of the battle, one of the earliest in history, made references to the major Canaanite/Levantine cities at the time, none of the Biblical towns as frequently cited in the Hebrew’s holy book, were ever mentioned in the Kadesh chronicles.

The sea peoples’ invasion of Canaan

In Year 8 of the reign of king Ramsses III, the Sea Peoples, most arguably from the Aegean & the Ionian islands, dared to wage an unprecedented offensive war against Egypt by land and sea.  King Ramsses III defeated them in two victorious land and sea battle (1178 BC)
This battle has been described as ‘the first naval battle in history’. The details of the combat are meticulously recorded on the walls of the mortuary temple of kingRamesses III at Thebes/Medinet Habu– one of the largest and best-preserved temples in Egypt.
Although he had defeated the Sea Peoples, king Ramsses III could not ultimately prevent some of them (specifically the Peleset/philistines) from eventually settling in Canaan and Palestine some time after his death
At Medinet Habu Ramses III displayed the names (with their stylized images) of seven of his defeated enemies who constituted the belligerent coalition of the sea peoples along with the then major political players in Canaan, who were either defeated or tempted to join the sea people’s incursion on Egyptian borders:
The names on the inscription were:
(Hittites) The wretched chief of Kheta as living captive.
(Amorites) The wretched chief of Amor.
(Tjekker) Chieftain (lit. the Great One) of the foe of Thekel (TAkwrA).
(Sherden) Sherden (SArAdAnA) of the sea.
(Bedouins) Chieftain of the foe of Sha[su] (SA ///).
(Teresh) Teresh (tjwrASA) of the sea.
(Philistines) Chieftain of the Pe[leset] (pw //////).
The Bible portrayed the Philistines – one of the identified seven factions of the belligerent coalition against Ramsses III – as the main enemy of the Israelites. We were told of an old war between the two peoples, that was often embroidered with mythical tales of heroism (David vs. goliath)
Since the battle of king Ramsses III took place at a time leading up, according to the Israelite chronology, to the United Monarchy (1030-931 BC) one would anticipate, if Ramsses III’s infantry units were forced into combat with all the major players in Canaan including the Hittites, Amorites and the Philistines, to find Israel/Israelites amongst them.
But again, that was not the case. The well preserved records of Ramsses III’s battle in Palestine/Canaan insist but to exclude the Israelites out of the historical/geopolitical scene of the region and paradoxically few years prior to the establishment of David & Solomon alleged kingdom. The Biblical stories must have happened somewhere else, and indeed that was the case.
While we could easily distinguish the philistines among the engraved inscriptions on the walls of Medinet Habu, the Israelites are nowhere to be found in the Egyptian records.
And no we can’t consider the Bedouins as the Israelites, for Egypt 30 years earlier had specifically designated them as “Israel” and not Bedouins. So let’s not waste time over that unacceptable hypothesis. Instead let’s focus on this dilemma; in Merneptah’s Stele we find Israel in Canaan and only thirty years later the Egyptian chronicles of a wartime in Canaan doesn’t mention Israel.
Now, the obvious question is where in the archaeological records are the Israelites that King Merneptah fought?
Ze’ev Herzog
However, Prof. Ze’ev Herzog of the Archaeology Faculty at the University of Tel Aviv, asserts that there is no evidence in the archaeological record that Israel was ever a powerful force, whether at the time of the Merneptah stele or at any other point in antiquity.
The conditions in ancient Palestine were inhospitable for urban settlement or the development of any kingdom for that matter, and certainly no showcase projects such as the Egyptian shrines/temples or the Mesopotamian palaces could have been established there.
The Egyptian documents make no mention of the Israelites’ presence in Egypt and are also silent about the events of the Exodus. Nevertheless, the documents do mention the custom of nomadic shepherds to enter Egypt during periods of drought and hunger and to camp at the edges of the Nile Delta. However, this was not a solitary phenomenon: such events occurred frequently over thousands of years and were hardly exceptional.
In his article “Deconstructing the Walls of Jericho“, appearing in Ha’aretz (29 October 1999), Ze’ev Herzog, an Israeli archeologist with over 30 years’ experience in excavating the whole land of modern day Israel (alleged ancient Canaan) shocked the world, not only the Zionist state of Israel, with his evidence-based findings;
“Following 70 years of intensive excavations in the Land of Israel, archaeologists have found out: The patriarchs’ acts are legendary stories, we did not sojourn in Egypt or make an exodus, and we did not conquer the land. Neither is there any mention of the empire of David and Solomon. Those who take an interest have known these facts for years, but Israel is a stubborn people and doesn’t want to hear about it.”
Having clarified that chapter of the  history of ancient Egypt in the late Bronze Age during which it practically controlled all of Canaan and practically most of the Levant I think it is becoming less of a puzzle for us why Egypt hardly mentioned or referred to Israel in its records whereas the Israelites were raving about Egypt all the time. The answer, that will definitely shock many, is because the real land which witnessed the Israelite’s stories was never in ancient Palestine or Egypt. Egypt was never the land of the Israelites’ Exodus nor Palestine their Promised Land.
Read all about this new revelation in Dr. Ashraf Ezzat’s new book (Egypt knew no Pharaohs nor Israelitespublished now on Amazon Kindle stores.

Saturday, June 25, 2016

Super Symmetry = SUSY

Europe's Large Hadron Collider --"Could Unveil Something Totally Unthinkable" In Months Ahead 


Going beyond the Standard Model of physics would "mean that there is yet another unbelievable idea out there. Something that is totally unthinkable," says CERN senior physicist Paris Sphicas. In 2016, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) could unveil whole new dimensions, help explain dark matter and dark energy, of which we have no understanding but which together make up 95 percent of the universe. Late last year, before CERN shut down its LHC for a technical break, two separate teams of scientists said they had discovered anomalies that could possibly hint at the existence of a mysterious new particle that could prove the existence of extra space-time dimensions, or explain the enigma of dark matter, scientists say.

The high-energy frontier has traditionally had one primary goal, to probe directly any uncharted physics waters. This has translated into the gigantic effort to complete the unobserved elements of the Standard Model of particle physics as well as to search for for signs of physics beyond.These measurements form a solid base from which searches for physics beyond the standard model have been launched. Since the discovery of the Higgs Boson in 2012, searches for supersymmetry and several signatures of possible new exotic physics phenomena have been developed, and new parameter space is being explored.
In 2016, the Large Hadron Collider, the world's most powerful proton smasher, is preparing for its biggest run yet which scientists hope will uncover new particles that could dramatically change our understanding of the Universe. "We are exploring truly fundamental issues, and that's why this run is so exciting," Sphicas told AFP at Europe's physics lab, CERN, last week. "Who knows what we will find," he added, with CERN saying preliminary results from the run could be available in the next few months.
Scientists had been gearing up to resume experiments at the LHC earlier this year, but the plans were delayed after a weasel wandered onto a high-voltage electrical transformer, causing a short-circuit. 
The LHC, housed in a 27-kilometre (17-mile) tunnel straddling the French-Swiss border, has shaken up physics before. In 2012 it was used to prove the existence of the Higgs Boson -- the long-sought maker of mass -- by crashing high-energy proton beams at velocities near the speed of light. (A proton-lead ion collision, shown below as observed by the LHCb detector during the 2013 data-taking period LHCb/CERN).

A year later, two of the scientists who had in 1964 theorised the existence of the Higgs, also known as the God particle, earned the Nobel physics prize for the discovery. The Higgs fits in with the so-called Standard Model -- the mainstream theory of all the fundamental particles that make up matter and the forces that govern them. But the anomalies, or "bumps", seen in the data last December could indicate something completely new.
The giant lab might prove the exotic theory of supersymmetry, SUSY for short, which suggests the existence of a heavier "sibling" for every particle in the universe.
The unexpected excess pair of photons spotted last year could be a larger cousin of the Higgs, according to one theory. "Who knows, maybe there's a whole Higgs family out there," Sphicas said.
But to determine whether the observed data "bump" is merely a statistical fluctuation or could actually be the first cracks in the Standard Model, much more data is needed.
When the massive machine comes back online, it is expected to quickly pile up astounding amounts of data for scientists to pick through for clues. After the Higgs discovery, the LHC underwent a two-year upgrade, reopening last year with double energy levels which will vastly expand the potential for groundbreaking discoveries.
The LHC ran for six months last year at the new energy level of 13 teraelectronvolts (TeV), but since the machine was just getting started again, it was not pushed to create the maximum number of collisions. The machine at its peak should see two beams each containing around 273,600 billion protons shoot through the massive collider in opposite directions, slamming into each other with a joint energy level of 13 TeV to produce two billion collisions a second.
"What we are looking for are very rare phenomena, (and) when you are looking for very rare phenomena you need a very large number of collisions," Frederick Bordry, CERN director for accelerators and technology, told AFP. "We are really at an energy level that enables discoveries," he said, adding that he expected the lab to have clarity by the end of summer on whether the data "bump" was more than "statistical noise".
Bordry added that the proton smasher is due to run until 2019. "If we have nature on our side, I think we will discover new particles and open a new road for physics beyond the Standard Model," he said.
The Daily Galaxy via AFP, Paris

Tuesday, June 21, 2016

Chinese supercomputer has been named the world's fastest computer

China creates world’s fastest computer without relying on US hardware for first time

© Jack Dongarra, Report on the Sunway TaihuLight System, June 2016
A Chinese supercomputer has been named the world's fastest computer for the seventh year in a row – but unlike previous winners, this year's champion uses only Chinese-designed processors, representing a decline of US dominance in the field.
The new titleholder, the Sunway TaihuLight at the National Supercomputing Center in Wuxi, was developed by China's National Research Center of Parallel Computer Engineering & Technology.
The supercomputer uses Chinese-developed ShenWei processors,“ending any remaining speculation that China would have to rely on Western technology to compete effectively in the upper echelons of supercomputing," said a statement by the TOP500 project ranking the world's fastest supercomputers.
It is capable of 93 petaflops, or quadrillion calculations per second, according to TOP500. It was designed for use in engineering and research, including in the fields of climate, weather, life sciences, advanced manufacturing, and data analytics.
The TaihuLight will be introduced at the International Supercomputing Conference in Frankfurt, Germany, on Tuesday.
"As the first No. 1 system of China that is completely based on homegrown processors, the Sunway TaihuLight system demonstrates the significant progress that China has made in the domain of designing and manufacturing large-scale computation systems," Guangwen Yang, director of the Wuxi center, was quoted as saying in the TOP500 statement.
Other countries with computers in the Top 10 were Japan, Switzerland, Germany, and Saudi Arabia.
In addition to beating out US computers, China also surpassed the US for the first time as the country with the most supercomputers in the top 500. China had 167 systems and the US had 165. Japan took third place with 29 systems.
China's developments serve as evidence of dwindling US dominance in the field, with TOP500 organizers saying:“Considering that just 10 years ago, China claimed a mere 28 systems on the list, with none ranked in the top 30, the nation has come further and faster than any other country in the history of supercomputing.”
Defined as a computer that performs at or near the highest operational rate for computers, supercomputers are one of a series of technologies being used by China's ruling Communist Party for development. The technologies have received huge financial support in the country.


Monday, June 20, 2016

“Great Danger”: US-NATO Missiles Threatening Russia

“Great Danger”: US-NATO Missiles Threatening Russia. Putin: “We Know and they Know that we Know…People do not Understand how Dangerous the Situation Really Is”

The US anti-missile defense systems being installed near Russia’s borders can be “inconspicuously” transformed into offensive weapons, Vladimir Putin has said, adding that he knows “year by year” how Washington will develop its missile program.
Talking about NATO’s ballistic missile defense systems in Eastern Europe, Russia’s president said that the Americans are now deploying their missiles at these military complexes. 
The missiles are put into a capsule used for launches of sea-based Tomahawk missiles. Now they are placing their antimissiles there, which are capable of engaging a target at a distance of up to 500 kilometers [310 miles]. But technologies are developing, and we know around what year the Americans will get a new missile, which will have a range not of 500 kilometers, but 1,000, and then even more – and from that moment they will start threatening our nuclear capability,”
Putin said at a meeting with the heads of international news agencies at the St. Petersburg International Economic Forum (SPIEF) on Friday.
“We know year by year what will happen, and they know that we know,” he said, adding that Western officials “pull the wool over [their news outlets] eyes, who in turn misinform their audiences.
The main problem, according to the Russian president, is that people do not understand how potentially dangerous the situation really is. “The world is being pulled into a completely new dimension, while [Washington] pretends that nothing’s happening,” Putin said, adding that he has been trying to reach out to his counterparts, but in vain.
“They say [the missile systems] are part of their defense capability, and are not offensive, that these systems are aimed at protecting them from aggression. It’s not true,” Putin told the journalists, adding that “strategic ballistic missile defense is part of an offensive strategic capability, [and] functions in conjunction with an aggressive missile strike system.”
The “great danger” is that the same launchers that are used for defense missiles can be used to fire Tomahawks that can be installed “in a matter of hours,” Putin noted. “How do we know what’s inside those launchers? All one needs to do is reprogram [the system], which is an absolutely inconspicuous task,” he said, adding that the governments of the nations on whose territories these NATO complexes are based would have no way of knowing if this had happened.
Washington engaged in deception from the very start when it claimed that it was moving its ballistic missile defense east to counter Iran’s nuclear threat,” Putin said, pointing out that Tehran’s alleged offensive nuclear capability now doesn’t exist – largely thanks to President Obama’s involvement. “So why have they now built a missile defense system in Romania?” he asked.
While pointing out that NATO keeps rejecting “concrete” proposals from Russia on cooperation, Putin said that US policy is now jeopardizing “the so-called strategic balance… thanks to which the world has been safe from large-scale wars and military conflicts.”
By unilaterally withdrawing from the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, Washington “struck the first colossal blow at international stability,” the president said. To maintain the balance, Moscow has had to develop its own missile program in turn, to which the US agreed in the beginning of the 2000s, when Russia was in a difficult financial situation.
“I guess they hoped that the armament from the Soviet times would initially become degraded, he said.
“Today Russia has reached significant achievements in this field. We have modernized our missile systems and successfully developed new generations. Not to mention missile defense systems,” Putin told the international news agencies, stressing that these moves are counter-measures and not “aggression, as Moscow is so often accused of.
“We must provide security not only for ourselves. It’s important to provide strategic balance in the world, which guarantees peace on the planet… It’s the mutual threat that has provided [mankind] with global security for decades,”Putin concluded.