Thursday, September 29, 2016

Kill Superbugs WITHOUT Antibiotics

25-Year-Old Student Discovers Way To Kill Superbugs WITHOUT Antibiotics — Science Freaks Out

“There is the danger that the ignorant man may easily underdose himself and, by exposing his microbes to non-lethal quantities of the drug (antibiotics), make them resistant,” Alexander Fleming, the man who discovered penicillin, cautioned at the acceptance of his Noble Prize in 1945.
Thanks to the medical-industrial complex and its tendency to prescribe antibiotics for just about every illness, including viruses, bacteria are getting smarter. Because we are giving non-lethal doses of antibiotics to bacteria on a massive scale, Fleming’s prediction in 1945, is now coming true.
The limited number of antibiotics in the world cannot keep up with the rapid rate of evolving bacteria. The world will soon be in a post-antibiotic era.
“Things as common as strep throat or a child’s scratched knee could once again kill,” warned the World Health Organization’s director-general Margaret Chan in 2012.
This ominous prediction is now swiftly coming in to fruition.
Currently, 700,000 people (230,000 newborns) die every year from superbugs that have evolved a resistance to antibiotics. According to a British study, that number is estimated to jump to 10,000,000 by the year 2050 and cost the world economy $100 trillion.
“If we fail to address this problem quickly and comprehensively, antimicrobial resistance will make providing high-quality universal healthcare coverage more difficult if not impossible,” UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon told The Guardian. “It will undermine sustainable food production. And it will put the sustainable development goals in jeopardy.”
The outlook for humanity is, indeed, bleak. However, thanks to a handful of research students from the University of Melbourne School, we may have hope after all.
Ph.D. student Shu Lam, the study’s lead researcher, believes they’ve found a way around antibiotic dependency in the battle against bacteria.
“We’ve developed a new class of antimicrobial agents, which are very unique. They come in the form of tiny star-shaped molecules that are made from short chains of proteins,” Lam told VICE. “We found that they are very effective at wiping out [bacterial] infections in mice and they are also relatively non-toxic to the body.”
These little miracle stars literally tear the bacteria apart by attaching to it and destroying the cell wall.
“These star polymers screw up the way bacteria survives,” Lam said. “Bacteria need to divide and grow but when our star is attached to the membrane it interferes with these processes. This puts a lot of stress on the bacteria and it initiates a process to kill itself from stress.”
meet-the-australian-scientist-who-might-have-solved-the-worlds-antibiotic-crisis-body-image-1473750810A diagram showing how the star-shaped polymers rip apart the cell wall. Image supplied by the University of Melbourne.
“We still need to do a lot of studies and a lot of tests—for example, to see whether these polymers have any side effects on our bodies,” she explained to Vice. “We need a lot of detailed assessments like that, [but] they could hopefully be implemented in the near future.”
Lam’s study was published in the prestigious journal, Nature Microbiology, this month, and has taken the scientific community by storm. This small team of scientists may have just saved humanity from the brink of extinction.
“This research is significant because everyone is worried about superbugs. Suddenly, a lot of people have been telling me that either they themselves or their relatives have been infected, that they have been in intensive care because of a superbug, and that people they know have actually died,” Lam told the Telegraph.
“I really hope that the polymers we are trying to develop here could eventually be a solution,” she added.
Because pharmaceutical companies are more interested in developing drugs that must be taken for a person’s entire life, thereby guaranteeing them future income, only one antibiotic, teixobactin, has been developed in the last 30 years.
“Incentives must be found to recreate the prolific era of antibiotic discovery that took place from 1940 to 1960,” said Margaret Chan, the director of the World Health Organisation.
Lam’s team may have just created that incentive by changing the face of modern medicine.
Lam hopes her “innovative” research will encourage pharmaceutical companies to invest, according to theTelegraph. “I hope it will attract some interest, because what we have discovered is quite different from antibiotics,” she says.
As the Telegraph reports:
Professor Greg Qiao, her PhD supervisor, says that Lam’s project is one of the biggest scientific breakthroughs he had seen in his 20 years at Melbourne university. But he cautions that it is still in the early stages, and will need at least another five years to develop, unless millions of pounds of investment can be found to speed the process. Cross-discipline work is still required to further reduce toxicity and work out the best way to administer the treatment, whether by tablet or injection.
“The really good news about this is that, at the moment, if you have a superbug and you run out of antibiotics, there’s not much you can do. At least you can do something now,” said Qiao.

Wednesday, September 28, 2016

Polyphenol and antioxidant content in the 100 richest foods

Polyphenol and antioxidant content in the 100 richest foods (mg per 100g or mg per 100ml)


FoodFood groupPolyphenols aPolyphenols AE aAntioxidants b
Peppermint, driedSeasonings1196027920298026
Star aniseSeasonings5460354603181016
Cocoa powderCocoa products3448432944110424
Mexican oregano, driedSeasonings2319521375
Celery seedSeasonings20946100710
Black chokeberryFruits1756714327175217
Dark chocolateCocoa products1664816186186013
Flaxseed mealSeeds1528c91220c8
Black elderberryFruits13591080413195012
Common sage, driedSeasonings1207128931229208
Rosemary, driedSeasonings10181352214251910
Spearmint, driedSeasonings956144911865753
Common thyme, driedSeasonings8781546419181515
Lowbush blueberryFruits836164961547135
Black oliveVegetables569193202211753
Highbush blueberryFruits560202952320540
Pecan nutSeeds4932249317181614
Soy flourSeeds4662326727
Green oliveVegetables346252332816147
Sweet basil, driedSeasonings322261663443174
Curry, powderSeasonings2852728525107525
Sweet cherryFruits274281453814448
Globe artichoke headsVegetables2602915435114223
Roasted soybeanSeeds2463115336
Milk chocolateCocoa products236322362785428
Red chicoryVegetables235341314112951
Red raspberryFruits215351074698027
Coffee, filterNon-alcoholic beverages214361104526737
Ginger, driedSeasonings202372023047332
Whole grain hard wheat flourCereals201c38201c2118646
Black grapeFruits169411244220541
Red onionVegetables1684299509160
Green chicoryVegetables1664311744
Common thyme, freshSeasonings1634411843117323
Refined maize flourCereals153c45153c3710259
Soy, tempehSeeds1484610148
Whole grain rye flourCereals143c47143c397266
Lemon verbena, driedSeasonings1065110647
Black teaNon-alcoholic beverages10252905210458
Red wineAlcoholic beverages10153915121539
Green teaNon-alcoholic beverages895482536267
Soy yogurtSeeds84555160
Yellow onionVegetables745649617564
Soy meatSeeds73574763
Whole grain wheat flourCereals71c5871c549061
Pure apple juiceNon-alcoholic beverages685961573475
Pure pomegranate juiceNon-alcoholic beverages6660376420443
Extra-virgin olive oilOils626133675570
Black beanSeeds59623666139020
Pure blood orange juiceNon-alcoholic beverages566428717267
Pure grapefruit juiceNon-alcoholic beverages536623765472
White beanSeeds5167316913849
Chinese cinnamonSeasonings48684862
Pure blond orange juiceNon-alcoholic beverages46692081
Soy tofuSeeds42722574
Pure lemon juiceNon-alcoholic beverages42732082
Whole grain oat flourCereals37c7437c658265
Refined rye flourCereals31c7731c704574
Ceylan cinnamonSeasonings2781277390702
Parsley, driedSeasonings25822575158418
Curly endiveVegetables24841587
Marjoram, driedSeasonings238522783,8465
Red lettuceVegetables2386148811458
Chocolate beverage with milkNon-alcoholic beverages21872180
Endive (Escarole)Vegetables18891191
Soy milkNon-alcoholic beverages18901192
Pure pummelo juiceNon-alcoholic beverages18917.997
Rapeseed oilOils179217841878
Soybean sproutSeeds15941095
Green grapeFruits15957.69812255
Soy cheeseSeeds12987.699
White wineAlcoholic beverages10998.6963277
Rosé wineAlcoholic beverages101007.8988263